學生階段

被動語態

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  • 發布時間:2015-05-03 21:23:51
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英語中的被動語態使用得比漢語要多,要普遍,許多課本乃至實際應用中都常常涉及到這個問題。一般說來,當強調動作承受者,不必說出執行者或含糊不清的執行者時,多用被動式。須注意的是,許多地方與漢語不同。注意那些漢語中沒有被的意思,英語卻應該用被動態。還要注意,英語的被動態往往由by引出,而有用介詞by的短語往往又不是被動態,而是系表結構。還有些特殊現象,如:known to man(人類......所知),on foot步行(美國人有時用by foot),in carraige(乘四輪馬車)等等。還有假主動,真被動的十幾個常用詞的用法,以及so heavy to carry而不用so heavy to be carried 等習慣用法。有關這類情況,做到心中有數對全面掌握被動態,準確無誤地解答習題非常關鍵,被動態必須涉及的是動詞的各種時態變化的問題。英語的時態本來很復雜,怎樣記住各自的被動形式呢? 首先要明確將來進行無被動,現在完成進行同。這兩種時態無被動形式。

    另外,不及物動詞帶有同源賓語的動詞,反身代詞的動詞和系動詞都無被動形式。即便如此,還有不定式,動名詞,分詞,以及它們的復合結構)的被動態,再加上情態動詞,助動詞以及它們的疑問式和否定式從中摻雜,真是令人頭痛,眼花繚亂。下面口訣就以動詞do為例,即do did過去式done過去分詞,以口訣形式總結各種時態的被動態,一定對你有所啟示。

    被動語態(一般現在時)

    主動語態變被動語態時,主動語態句中的賓語變成被動語態句中的主語,主動語態句中的主語成為被動語態句中的動作的發出者。

    被動語態的口訣

    一般現、過用be 過去分詞,be有人稱、時、數變。

    完成時態have(has) done,被動將been加中間。

    一般將來shall (will) do,被動變do為be done。

    將來進行無被動,shall (will) be doing,

    現在完成進行同,have (has) been doing。

    現、過進行be doing, 被動be加being done。

    情、助、有、是妥安排,一律隨新主語變。

    否定助后加not,疑問一助置主前。

    主語恰是疑問詞,直陳語序主在前。

    一般情助加be done,雙賓多將間賓變。

    復合賓語賓變主,賓補、主補相應變。

    1.一般現在時 isamare P.P(過去分詞)

    2.一般過去時 waswere P.P

    3.一般將來時 will be P.P

    4.現在進行時 isamare being(固定不變) P.P

    5.過去進行時 waswere being(固定不變) P.P

    6.現在完成時 havehas been P.P

    7.過去完成時 had been P.P

    第二句be有人稱、時、數變即be有人稱、時態和單、復數的變化。情助是指情態動詞和助動詞must,may,can,shall,will等一律隨新主語(多是主動句中的賓語)來變化。疑問一助置主前是說有兩個助動詞的話,應把主語放在第一助動詞之后或把第一助動詞置于主語之前。下面詳細舉例說明之。

    一般現、過用be done, be有人稱、時、數變

    例:1、主動:The children gave the foreign guests a warm welcome.

    被動:The foreign guests were given a warm welcome by the children.

    孩子們熱烈地歡迎外賓。

    2、主動:People regard him as brilliant.

    被動:He is regarded as brilliant by people.

    人們認為他很有才華。

    以上兩例都是一般時態用be done的例子,be有人稱、時、數變,第三人稱foreign friends是復數,時態一般過去時,所以be done就是were given,而People regard him as brilliant一句,被動后的be done就變成單數第三人稱is regarded的形式了。

    被動:

    This speech was delivered by comrade Wang. (was delivered即一般過去時的被動態)

    這篇講演是王的發言。

    There was a serious train accident near the border. Two people were killed and twelve were injured.

    邊境發生非常嚴重列車事故,兩人死亡,十二人受傷。

    A person who is truly honest is called a straight arrow. 直言不諱的人才是真正誠實的人。

    A note was passed up to the speaker. 有人給講演者遞上來一張紙條。

    John was elected president of the class instead of Harry. 喬治被選為班長而代替了亨利。

    Volcanoes are described as active, dormant or extinct. 火山被描述為活的,沉睡著的,或者死的。

    The soldier was killed, but the train was saved. 這位戰士犧牲了,然而列車得救了。

    He was thought to be clever but dishonest. 他被認為很聰明但不誠實。(別人認為他很聰明但不誠實)

    The first zoological garden in the United States was established in 1874. 美國的第一個動物園是1874年建立的。

    Families were often broken up; wives were taken away from their husbands and children from their parents.

    家庭被拆散,妻兒被奪走。

    The information is urgently needed. 急需這個資料。

    Most environmental problems exist because adequate measures for preventing them were not taken in the past. 多數環境污染問題的存在,是因為過去沒有采取適當的保護措施。

    完成時態have done,被動將been加中間。

    (過去完成時had done也包括在內)。

    例:1、主動:We have studied English for 3 years off and on at the spare-time school.

    被動:English has been studied for 3 years by us off and on at the spare-time school. (have隨新主語變為has)

    我們已經在夜校里斷斷續續地學了三年英語了。

    2、主動: They had produced 100 tractors by the end of last year.

    被動: 100 tractors had been produced by the end of last year.

    到去年年底我們已生產出一百臺拖拉機。

    3、主動:They have set up a power station in their home town.

    被動:A power station has been set up in their home town.

    他們的家鄉建立了一座發電站。

    4、主動:They have warned us to be careful of rats.

    被動:We have been warned to be careful of rats.

    他們已提醒我們要注意老鼠。

    5、主動:People have piled plastic bags full of rubbish in streets.

    被動: Plastic bags full of rubbish have been piled in streets.

    人們把裝滿垃圾的塑料袋子堆放在街上。

    6、主動:We have used nuclear energy to produce electricity.

    被動:Nuclear energy has been used to produce electricity.

    核能已用來發電。

    7、主動:No one has ever beaten him at tennis.

    被動:He has never been beaten at tennis.

    就網球來說還沒有人是他的對手。

    (No one涉及到全否定和部分否定問題,見否定一講)

    The person who owns the gun may try to deny that he has used it. But anyone seeing the smoke knows the gun has just been fired.

    有槍的人會極力否認他開了槍。但是任何看到槍煙(槍冒的煙)的人都會知道剛才開了槍。

    Today is Cilia"s wedding day, she has just been married to Bob

    今天是西麗亞的新婚日,她剛剛和鮑勃結婚。

    The subjects of these lectures have been announced by the lecture committee.

    演講委員會已宣布了這些講演的題目。

    過去完成時也是一樣:

    主動: Somebody had cleaned my shoes.

    被動: My shoes had been cleaned by somebody.

    有人早已把我的鞋子擦了。

    When I returned I found that they had towed (toud) my car away, I asked why they had done this and they told me that id was because I had parked it under a No Parking Sign.

    被動:my car had been towed away. I asked why this had been done and told that ... it had been parked under a No Parking Sign.

    當我回來時,發現我的車被弄走了。我問他們為啥這么于。他們告訴我說因為我把車于停在禁止停車的禁區。

    主動:They had build three ships by last December.

    被動: By last December three ships had been built by them.

    到去年年底他們已建造了三艘船。

    Research had been centred on the improvement of natural building materials before synthetics were created.

    合成材料造出之前,研究工作集中在改進天然建筑材料上。

    He did not say if all those steel pipes had been examined.

    他并沒有說那些鋼管都檢驗過沒有。

    After plastic had been created, engineers were given a much wide choice of materials.

    塑料發明之后,工程師們在材料選擇上有了更廣闊的途徑。

    一般將來shall (will) do,被動變do為be done

    即由shall do或will do變為shall done或will be done。

    例:主動: We shall build several big modern power plants in our city next year.

    被動:Several big modern power plants will be built in our city next year.

    過年我市將建立幾座大型現代化的發電廠。

    (shall do中的shall要隨新主語變為will, do為be done.)

    主動:I shall send my second boy to school next September.

    被動:My second boy will be sent to school next September.

    過年九月我將送我次子去讀書。

    主動:In order to fool people cheaps and swindlers will make such bricks out of lead covering the lead brick with gold.

    被動:Such bricks will be made out of lead covering the lead brick with gold by cheaps and swindlers.

    鉛磚外面被設法騙錢的商人和騙子們鍍上一層金來做這樣的金磚。

    主動:They will ask you a lot of strange questions.

    被動: You will be asked a lot of strange questions.

    他們將問你許多怪題。

    被動句中的by引出的賓語,一般說來,如果是人稱代詞你、我、他等,均可省略,someone no one不由by來引出。如果是名詞不能省略,但當今英語也都可省略了。

    主動:The Chinese people will make more space explorations in the future.

    被動:More space explorations will be made in the future by the Chinese people.

    中國人民在將來將進行更多的空間探索。

    同樣

    After a period of use, the batteries should be changed. 電池使用一段時間后,應該更換。

    Usually, the electricity is on for 24 hours. But tomorrow it will be cut off in the day time. 通常是晝夜供電,明天白天將停電。

    More peaceful uses will be found for nuclear explosives in the future. 在將來會發現更多的和平利用核爆炸的途徑。

    More hard work will be needed to make this wonder come true in a short time from now. 從現在起要使這些奇跡在短時間內成為現實還需要做更多的艱苦工作。

    make...come true 使成為事實; come true做賓補(見感使動詞口訣)。

    The machine will not be used again. 這機器不能再用了。

    Will more gas be needed? 需要更多的煤氣嗎?

    但如果是一般過去將來時如何處理呢?請記下面口訣:

    一般過去將來時,過去某時將發生。

    主動should (would) do,被動be done代原形。

    將來進行無被動,現在完成進行同。

    主動:A few days ago we were still not quite sure whether we should carry out the new plan ahead of time.

    被動:...whether the new plan would be carried out ahead of time.

    幾天前,我們還不能肯定能否提前執行新的計劃。

    主動:I did not say that we would change the equipment.

    被動:I did not say that the equipment would be changed.

    我并沒說過,我們將換掉那臺設備。

    主動:My supervisor told me that he would give me a special tutorial a few days ago.

    被動:My supervisor told me that a special tutorial would be given to me a few days ago.

    幾天前,我的導師說他將對我進行個別輔導。

    主動: I never thought that be would bring me the information so early.

    被動:I never thought that the information would be brought to me so early.

    我決沒想到他那么早就會把資料帶給我。

    將來進行無被動,shall (will) be doing,

    現在完成進行同.have (has) been doing,

    即將來進行時表示動作在將來某一時刻或某個階段正在進行"現在完成進行時表示某-行為發生在過去.延續到現在,可能還要延續下去。兩種時態則不用被動語態。

    例;We hope your comany will soon be sending an engineer over to check this equipment. (將來進行時) 我們希望貴公司早些派一名工程師來檢查這臺設備。

    In a ffew minutes our passenger plane will be flying in the stratosphere. (將來進行時) 幾分鐘后我們的客機將在同溫層中飛行。

    We hope scientists will be tapping new energy sources to meet the need for power. 我們希望科學家們將發掘新的能源來滿足能量的需要。(將來進行時)

    What will you be doing this evening? 今晚你將做什么?(將來進行時)

    I have been living in Anshan Since 1980.(現在完成進行時) 1980年以來,我一直住在鞍山。

    How long have you been studying English? 你學英語多久了?(現在完成進行時)

    We have been waiting at the airport for the because of the thick fog. 由于大霧,我們已經在機場等了一整天了。 (現在完成進行時)

    Since then, applied mathematicians have been coping successfully with many problems in astronony. 從那時以來,應用數學家成功地處理了許多天文學上的問題。

    (現在完成進行時)以上均無被動態。

    現、過進行be doing,被動be加being done

    即現在進行時或過去進行時都是be的人稱、時和數的形式加doing。而被動態則是be加上being done的形式,being是不變的。現在進行時和過去進行時的被動態是被動態個的重點,容易搞錯。例如:

    主動:The workers are repairing the main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute.

    被動:The main building of the Northeast Engineering Institute is being repaired by the workers.

    工人們正在維修東北工學院主樓。

    Two reservoirs are being built at the same time. 兩座水庫同時建造。

    The nasty question is being considered by the committee members. 委員會的委員們正在考慮那個棘手的問題.

    Equipment and foodstuffs are being flown to the floodstricken areas. 設備和食品正在空運到災區。

    The buildong of another fly-over is being planned. 他們在計劃修建另一座跨線橋。

    We coudld not get through because the February 19th Road was being repaired. 我們過不去,因二.一九路正維修呢。

    情、助、有、是妥安排,一律隨新主語變。

    帶情態動詞和助動詞等的被動態如何處理比較復雜。要隨新的主語來變化,這些詞如can, could;will, would; shall, should; may, might; must; ought to; need需要;have to不得不;be going to; to be to; used to; seem to; happen to等。例如:

    下回書接續!

    接上回書!

    主動: We must keep this in mind.

    被動:This must be kept in mind.

    我們必須把這個記在心里。

    主動:We can put the refrigerator in that place. (refrigerator=freezer.)

    被動:The refrigerator can be put in that place.

    我們可以把電冰箱放在那個地方。

    主動:We shall not use the washing machine again.

    被動:The washing machine will not be used again.

    我們不能再用那臺洗衣機了。 原來的謂語shall use被動態中隨新主語變為will.

    主動: We shall take more measures to prevent corrosion.

    被動: More measures will be taken to prevent corrosion. (shall變will)

    我們將采取更多的措施來防止腐蝕。

    I ought to be criticized for it. 我應該為此受到批評.

    All this has to be solved with great care. 這一切得認真解決。

    The lobby is going to be rebuilt. 門廳將重建。

    The exhibition is to be opened tomorrow. 展覽會將在明日開放。

    再如:

    主動:We shall have to adopt a different attitude.

    被動:A different attitude will have to be adopted.

    我們將不得不采取另一種態度.

    主動:You are to leave the bag here.

    被動: The bag is to be left here. (are to隨新主語變為is to)

    你應把包裹放在這兒。

    主動:They used to start these engines by hand.

    被動:These engines used to be started by hand.

    過去他們用手啟動馬達。

    主動: We are going to paint the wall green.

    被動:The all is going to be painted green.

    我們打算把墻刷成綠色。

    主動:You needn"t type this letter.

    被動:This letter need not be typed. (ought to, need是不變助動詞)

    你不必把這封信打字。

    主動:John seems to like Mary very much.

    被動:Mary seems to be liked very much by John.

    看來約翰非常喜歡瑪麗。

    主動:The boy happened to meet her in the street.

    被動:She happened to be met in the street by the boy.

    這個男孩碰巧在街上遇到了她。

    主動:It must have disappointed him terribly that people told him they didn"t want him.

    被動:He must have been terribly disappointed to be told he was"t wanted.

    人們告訴他,他們不需要他,這一定已經使得他特別失望.

    主動:You should bear in mind that he wasn"t present.

    被動: That he wasn"t present should be borne in mind.

    或It should be borne in mind that he wasn"t present.

    你應記住他未出席。

    主動:You should have taken those books back to the library.

    被動:Those books should have been taken back to the library.

    你本該把這些書帶回圖書館去。

    主動:They may have left it in the sun.

    被動:It may have been left in the sun.

    他們可能已把它放在陽光下了。

    may加不定式的完成體或完成進行體表示可能,主要用于肯定句,決不能用在疑問句中。而can與不定式的完成體或完成進行體連用表示可能,只用于否定句和疑問句,不用于肯定句。但如果can或may的過去式即could與might與不定式完成體或完成進行體搭配時,可用于各種結構。肯,否,陳,疑均可。

    It can"t have been lost in the post, can it?

    它不可能在郵局丟失的吧:(反意疑問句)

    否定助后加not,疑問一助置主前

    在否定句的被動態中,否定副詞not-定加在第一助動詞之后,不放在別的助動詞之后。同樣在疑問句的被動態中,第一助動詞置于主語之前。

    例:Why has(一助) not anything been(二助) done to end the strike?

    not必須放在第一助動詞has之后,第-助動詞has必須放在主語anything之前。決不可寫成: why has fot been anything done to end the strike?或why has been not anything done to end the strike?

    為什么不采取些措施來結束罷工呢?

    The exercises will not be done in class.

    不可寫成:The exercise will be not done in class.

    我們將不在課堂上作練習。

    In what other way could(一助) information about Mars be(二助) abtained?

    用什么別的途徑能獲得火星的資料呢?

    Why had he been imprisoned?

    他為何入獄的?

    Need she be told about it?

    需要告訴他嗎?

    主動:No one has ever equalled your record.

    被動:Your record has never been equalled.

    沒人刷新你的記錄。

    主語恰是疑問詞,直陳語序主在前

    凡主語恰好是一個疑問詞或由疑問詞來修飾主語時,后面要用陳述語序。

    例: What(主語) could be dropped from a satellite?

    衛星上扔下何物?

    What measures(主語) are being taken to develop this new science? (主語為疑問詞what所修飾)

    正在采取什么措施來發展這門新科學?

    What kind of device(主語) is needed to make the control system simple? (主語為疑問詞所修飾)

    需要什么裝置來使控制系統簡化?

    what has been done to improve the techniques?

    采取了什么措施來改進這些技術的? (what恰是句子的主語)

    應指出的是有的學生把We study diligently和She could see herself clearly in the mirror.都硬行變成被動了, 殊不知不及物動詞通常是沒有被動態的。關于不及物動詞.反身代詞動詞,同源賓語動詞.系詞.感官使役動詞,短語動詞的被動態。

    主動句變為被動句所遵循的4個步驟:

    1.把原主動句中的賓語變為被動句的主語

    2.把動詞變為被動形式即be 過去分詞,并注意其人稱和數隨主語的變化,而動詞的時態則保持不變。

    3.原主動句的主語如需要則放在by后面以它 的賓格形式出現(注代詞的賓格),如不需要則可省略。

    4.其它的成分(定語、狀語)不變。

  [編輯本段]不用被動語態的情況

    

    1) 不及物動詞或動詞短語無被動語態(即多數的瞬間動詞):

    appear, die(死亡),disappear(消失), end (vi. 結束), fail, happen, last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand

    break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place.

    After the fire, very little remained of my house.

    比較: rise, fall, happen是不及物動詞;raise, seat是及物動詞。

    (錯) The price has been risen.

    (對) The price has risen.

    (錯) The accident was happened last week. 

    (對) The accident happened last week.

    (錯) The price has raised. 

    (對) The price has been raised.

    (錯) Please seat. 

    (對) Please be seated.

    要想正確地使用被動語態,就須注意哪些動詞是及物的,哪些是不及物的。特別是一詞多義的動詞往往有兩種用法。解決這一問題唯有在學習過程中多留意積累。

    2) 不能用于被動語態的及物動詞或動詞短語:

    fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to

    This key just fits the lock.

    Your story agrees with what had already been heard.

    3) 系動詞無被動語態:

    appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn

    It sounds good.

    4) 帶同源賓語的及物動詞,反身代詞,相互代詞,不能用于被動語態:

    die, death, dream, live, life

    She dreamed a bad dream last night.

    5) 當賓語是不定式時,很少用于被動語態。

    (對) She likes to swim.

    (錯) To swim is liked by her.PS:

  [編輯本段]有些動詞可以帶雙賓語

    在用于被動結構時,主動結構中的間接賓語變為主語時,直接賓語仍然保留在謂語后面;直接賓語變為主語時,間接賓語前通常加上介詞for/to

    ★He was asked a number of questions at the press conference.在記者招待會上人們問了他很多問題

    ★They are taught a lot of things in the kindergartens.他們在幼兒園被教給很多東西。

    ★A new MP4 was given to him as birthday present/gift.作為生日禮物他收到了一個新MP4。

  [編輯本段]【特別提醒】

    有些動詞后跟不帶to的不定式作賓語補足語,但改為被動結構后要加上to。例如

    We heard him sing in his room just now.

    ---He was heard to sing in his room just now.

    剛才聽到他在房間中唱歌。

    一、 被動語態的用法:

    1. 一般現在時的被動語態構成:is / am / are 及物動詞的過去分詞

    Our classroom is cleaned everyday.

    I am asked to study hard by my mother.

    Knives are used for cutting things.

    2. 一般過去時的被動語態構成:was / were 及物動詞的過去分詞

    A new shop was built last year.

    Dinosaur eggs were laid long long ago.

    3. 現在完成時的被動語態構成:has / have been 及物動詞的過去分詞

    This book has been translated into many languages.

    Many man-made satellites have been sent up into space by many countries.

    4. 一般將來時的被動語態構成:will be 及物動詞的過去分詞

    A new hospital will be built in our city.

    Many more trees will be planted next year.

    5. 含有情態動詞的被動語態構成:情態動詞 be 及物動詞的過去分詞

    Young trees must be watered often.

    Your mistakes should be corrected right now.

    The door may be locked inside.

    Your homework can be handed in tomorrow.

    6. 現在進行時的被動語態構成:am / is / are being 及物動詞的過去分詞

    Uncle Wang is mending my bike now.

    My bike is being repaired by Tom now.

    They are planting trees over there.

    Trees are being planted over there by them.

    7. 不定式的被動語態:to be 及物動詞的過去分詞

    There are two books to be read.

    There are twenty more trees to be planted.

    二、 怎樣把主動語態改成被動語態?

    把主動語態改為被動語態非常簡單,可以遵循以下幾個步驟:

    1. 先找出謂語動詞;

    2. 再找出謂語動詞后的賓語;

    3. 把賓語用作被動語態中的主語;

    4. 注意人稱、時態和數的變化。

    例:1. Bruce writes a letter every week. A letter is written by Bruce every week.

    2. Li Lei mended the broken bike this morning.The broken bike was mended by Li Lei this morning.

    3. He has written two novels so far.Two novels have been written by him so far.

    4. They will plant ten trees tomorrow.Ten trees will be planted by them tomorrow.

    5. Lucy is writing a letter now.A letter is being written by Lucy now.

    6. You must lock the door when you leave.the door must be locked when you leave.

    三、 使用被動語態應注意的幾個問題:

    1. 不及物動詞無被動語態。

    What will happen in 100 years.

    The dinosaurs disappeared about 65 million years ago.

    2. 有些動詞用主動形式表示被動意義。

    This pen writes well.

    This new book sells well.

    3. 感官動詞或使役動詞使用省略to的動詞不定式,主動語態中不帶to ,但變為被動語態時,須加上to 。

    例:make somebody do somethingsomebody be made to do something

    see somebody do somethingsomebody be seen to do something

    A girl saw my wallet drop when she passed by.My wallet was seen to drop by a girl when she passed by.

    The boss made the little boy do heavy work.The little boy was made to do heavy work by the boss.

    4. 如果是接雙賓語的動詞改為被動語態時,直接賓語(物)作主語,那么動詞后要用介詞,這個介詞是由與其搭配的動詞決定。

    He gave me a book.A book was given to me by him.

    He showed me a ticket.A ticket was shown to me by him.

    My father bought me a new bike. A new bike was bought for me by my father.

    5. 一些動詞短語用于被動語態時,動詞短語應當看作一個整體,而不能丟掉其中的介詞或副詞。

    We cant laugh him. He cant be laugh by us.

    He listens to the radio every day. The radio is listened to by him every day.

    The nurse is taking care of the sick man. The sick man is being taken care of by the nurse.

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